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International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy    

E-Proceedings ISBN: 978-1-912532-05-6

14-15 March 2019, Oxford, United Kingdom



Problem Identification for Higher Fraction of Biodiesel in Engine System



Md Abul Kalam (1), Haeng Muk Cho (2) and Hj Hassan Masjuki (1)

1. Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Malaysiaa

2. Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Korea


Paper Abstract

This paper presents the biodiesel update and problems associated with the higher fraction of biodiesel (like B15 to B20) in the engine system. The low fraction of biodiesel like B5 to B7 is being utilized in many countries around the world. However, there are numerous problems with the higher fraction of biodiesel in engine combustion, emissions, performance and component wear characteristics. Biodiesel obtains from different feedstocks and standardises with the EN and ASTM standard for usage in IC engine, still, however, there are a lot of matters to be reviewed and discussed for a higher fraction of biodiesel that causes engine power degradation, components failures, fuel dilution to increase wear debris and corrosive effect. This paper will quantify the negative effect of a higher fraction of biodiesel regarding brake power, thermal efficiency and pollutants variations obtained from inconsistent combustion pressures. For a higher fraction of biodiesel, less pressure energy conversion into brake power and fuel dilution happened.

This paper contains the test results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine with various load-speed conditions using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as biodiesel obtained from coconut and palm oil. It is found that biodiesel fraction up to 20% burns completely at the engine’s low load condition. However, above 20% biodiesel, the brake mean-effective-pressure (BMEP) suddenly drops at the half of the maximum engine speed for wide-open throttle (WOT) condition. Used lubricant, from an engine endurance test, was measured and found increasing wear debris materials (Fe, Cr, Cu Al etc.) with increasing biodiesel in blends as compared to pure diesel fuel; this is the effect of biodiesel dilution with engine lubricating oil.

It has been identified that (in comparison to pure diesel fuel) high density, high viscosity, high initial boiling point temperature, low burning speed, high surface tension, low atomization characteristics, combustion cyclic variation, fuel-bound oxygen and corrosive effect, low refractive index and low thermal diffusivity of biodiesel are the main reasons for incomplete combustion in engine operating system. The results of this paper would be helpful for further improvement of biodiesel operational system in IC engines. 

Paper Keywords
Brake power, Wear, Dilution, Oxygen and Emissions.
Corresponding author Biography

Dr Md Abul Kalam is working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya from January 2008 to date.  His research specialisation is on Internal-combustion engine, Biodiesel/Biofuel, Lubricant testing and Engine Tribology. Dr Kalam obtained his undergraduate degree from Bangladesh Institute of Technology (B.I.T) Khulna, which is presently known as Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET), and Master & PhD from University of Malaya, Malaysia. Recently, Dr Kalam’s name appeared in the list of “2017 Highly Cited Researcher” in recognition of ranking among the top 1% of researchers for most cited documents, in the area of engineering by Web of Science and Clarivate Analytics. He received ‘University of Malaya Excellence Award 2017’ for outstanding achievement in the category of “Academic Staff with Most Highly Cited Paper (Sciences). He was appointed as Head of Biofuel and Renewable Energy Unit for ‘Centre for Energy Sciences (CES)’ effective from 4th January 2010 to date.

The International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’18)