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Dr. Arief Budiman

Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD), SINGAPORE


Talk Title
Probing Stress and Reliability of Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Next Generation Li-ion Battery using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Submicron Diffraction

Talk Abstract

Silicon is considered as a promising anode material for the next generation lithium-ion battery due to its high capacity at nanoscale. However, silicon expands up to 300% during lithiation, which induces high stresses and leads to fractures. To design silicon nanostructures that could minimize fracture, it is important to understand and characterize stress states in the silicon nanostructures during lithiation. Synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction has proven to be effective in revealing insights of mechanical stress and other mechanics considerations in small-scale crystalline structures used in many important technological applications, such as microelectronics, nanotechnology and energy systems. In the present study, an in situ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction experiment was conducted to elucidate the mechanical stress states during the first electrochemical cycle of lithiation in singlecrystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) in a lithium-ion battery test cell. Morphological changes in the SiNWs at different levels of lithiation were also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found from SEM observation, that lithiation commenced predominantly at the top-surface of SiNWs followed by further progression towards the bottom of the SiNWs gradually. The hydrostatic stress of the crystalline core of the SiNWs at different levels of electrochemical lithiation was determined using the in situ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique. We found that the crystalline core of the SiNWs became highly compressive (up to -~325.5 MPa) once lithiation started. This finding helps unravel insights about mechanical stress states in the SiNWs during the electrochemical lithiation, which could potentially pave the path towards the fracture-free design of silicon nanostructure anode materials in the next generation lithium-ion battery. The in situ synchrotron X-ray submicron diffraction methodology as a probe of stress and thus reliability of the novel silicon nanowire anode in Li-ion battery described is also novel and could lead to enable next generation, more robust Li-ion battery technology and thus enable next generation applied energy technologies for the world. Technologists from industry and researchers from universities and national laboratories alike should be interested audiences especially given the economical importance of producing high-volume, robust and reliable next generation Li-ion battery systems.

Short Biography

Arief Suriadi Budiman received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB), Indonesia, his M.EngSc in materials engineering from Monash Univ., Australia and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford University, CA in 2008. During his doctoral candidacy at Stanford’s Department of Materials Science & Engineering under the supervision of Professor William D. Nix (MRS Von Hippel Award 2007), Dr. Budiman received several research awards (MRS Graduate Silver Award 2006, MRS Best Paper 2006) and contributed to several high-impact journal publications (Acta Materialia, Applied Physics Letters, Journal of Electronic Materials). He gave two symposium invited talks as well in the MRS spring and fall meetings in 2006. More recently Dr. Budiman has been awarded the prestigious Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Director's Research Fellowship to conduct top strategic research for the energy and national security missions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's. At the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos, Dr. Budiman’s research program involves nanomaterials for extreme environments with potential applications in advanced energy systems including for next generation nuclear power reactors. Currently, at Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD), Prof. Budiman is leading a dynamic, young group researching nanomaterials and nanomechanics and their implications for extending the extreme limits of materials as well as their applications in the next generation energy technologies (solar PV, extreme environments, energy storage, etc.). His work has also recently received the famed Berkeley Lab Scientific Highlights twice in May 2010 and June 2013 (the latter was for his novel, innovative characterization technique that enables thin silicon solar PV technology). His deep expertise in the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique was also recently utilized to enable the first ever in situ measurements of mechanical stresses in the 3-D through-silicon via (TSV) Cu interconnect schemes in the world – the findings were reported in a publication in Microelectronics Reliability (2012) and now one of the most highly cited references in the field of TSV/3D Interconnect stress measurements. He has been invited to give invited lectures/seminars on 3D/TSV Interconnect in various international conferences (including IEEE IITC 2012, AVS Thin Films Users Group 2012, TMS Symposium for Emerging Interconnects and Packaging Technologies 2011 and SEMATECH Workshop on 3D Interconnect Metrology at SEMICON 2011). Dr. Budiman has authored/co-authored several high-impact journal publications (Acta Materialia, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Materials Science Engineering A), and contributed a book chapter on “Electromigration in Thin Films and Electronic Devices: Materials and Reliability,” Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2011. He has also recently published a book “Probing Crystal Plasticity at the Nanoscales – Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction” (Springer 2015). He has two U. S. Patents and one pending.

Talk Keywords
Silicon nanowire, novel anode materials, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Lithium ion battery
Target Audience
Stuents, academica, industry, government
Speaker-intro video

The International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’18)